balfor Essay


Balfour v. Balfour – Case Quick Summary

Brief summary of Balfour v. Balfour, 2 E. B. 571 (1919).


Mr. Balfour (D) and Mrs. Balfour (P) occupied Ceylon and visited Britain on a holiday. The plaintiff remained in britain for medical therapy and the accused agreed to mail her a certain amount of money monthly until she could come back. The accused later asked to remain separated and Mrs. Balfour sued for reparation; indemnity; settlement; compensation; indemnification of her conjugal rights and for alimony equal to the quantity her husband had consented to send. Mrs. Balfour acquired a decree nisi and five weeks later was granted a great order to get alimony. The bottom court came into judgment in favour of the plaintiff and organised that the defendant's promise to deliver money was enforceable. The court placed that Mrs. Balfour's consent was satisfactory consideration to render the contract enforceable and the defendant appealed. Issues

1 . Must both parties intend that an agreement be lawfully binding to be an enforceable contract? 2 . Under what circumstances is going to a court docket decline to enforce an agreement between husband and wife? Holding and Rule

1 . Yes. Each must aim that an agreement be legally binding to be an enforceable contract. installment payments on your The courtroom will not enforce agreements between spouses that involve lifestyle. Agreements among husband and wife more than matters that affect their daily lives are not subject to contractual model, even when concern is present. Spouses normally aim that the terms of their negotiating can be different as situations develop. The court kept that it was assumed that the celebrations made the agreement while husband and wife and did not want that it could possibly be sued upon. The the courtroom held that as a matter of public coverage it could not really resolve conflicts between husband and wife. Disposition

Judgment for individual Mrs. Balfour reversed.


Contracts linked to the cultural aspect of matrimony will not be enforced by the courts. Contracts between spouses linked to business relationships can be enforced, however. Tennis courts are willing to support negotiated divorce settlements and written transactions of support. See Burnham v. Remarkable Court of California to get a law college civil process case brief involving a problem of personal legislation in connection with a divorce lawsuit.

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Stereotypes Focus Protecting Projection

Olesya Govorun

Kathleen Fuegen

The Ohio State University

N. Keith Payne

University of North Carolina, Church Hill

Protective projection may be the process of perceiving one's unfavorable qualities in others. The present research shows how stereotypes guide and justify the projection of specific characteristics onto specific group members. In several studies, the authors demonstrated that people who knowledgeable a threat to a specific dimension with their self-concept selectively activated this dimension within a stereotype and derogated stereotyped others with this dimension. That they further showed that stereotyped individuals are more likely to serve as focuses on of output than are nonstereotyped persons. These outcomes demonstrate the functional function of stereotypes in leading and constraining motivated self-enhancement.

Keywords: projection; stereotyping; availability; self-threat; compen- satory self-enhancement

Can stereotypes reveal even more about a perceiver than a

person perceived? In respect to hypotheses of defensive

projection, stereotypes may do exactly that (Allport, 1954;

Newman & Caldwell, 2005). Projection is a process of

perceiving one's unfavorable qualities in others as a way

to protect your self-image (A. Freud, 1936; S. Freud,


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discharge, and dealing with threat to self-esteem

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ies of projection in trait attribution

Clement, L. W., & Krueger, J. (2002). Sociable categorization moderates

social discharge

Devine, S. G. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: All their automatic and

controlled pieces

Edlow, D. W., & Kiesler, C. A. (1966). Ease of refusal and protective pro-


Epstein, Ur., & Baron, R. M. (1969). Intellectual dissonance and pro-

jected hostility toward outgroups

Filigran, S., & Spencer, T. J. (1997). Prejudice as self-image repair:

Affirming the self through derogating others

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suppression of dread upon cultural perception

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collected documents of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 1). London, uk: Hogarth. (Origi-

nal work published 1924)

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friday ingroup id model

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and using stereotypic values

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tion on self-ratings]

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Higgins, E. T. (1996). Expertise activation: Availability, applicabil-

eness, and salience

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69, 248-268.

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cal Program, 85, 677-688.

Holmes, M. S., & Houston, N. K. (1971). The protective function of


Horney, K. (1939). New ways in psychoanalysis. Nyc: Norton.

(2004). The output of implicit and specific goals. Record of Per-

sonality and Social Mindset, 86, 545-559.

Kunda, Z., Davies, G. G., Adams, B., & Spencer, T. J. (2002). The

energetic time course of stereotype account activation: Activation, dissipa-

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and when perform they color judgment? A goal-based theory of stereo-

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The role of defensive discharge in stereotyping and prejudice

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shielding projection: Believed suppression, accessibility, and

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